This included assisting in identifying known and potential enemy agents and sympathizers. Investigations of military personnel, including those employed or controlled by the Coast Guard, were also conducted. CGI personnel were also involved with counterintelligence support for the war effort in many critical ports throughout the United States. These efforts by CGI personnel and port security officers paid off — there were no known successes of foreign-inspired sabotage on vessels or waterfront facilities during WWII. However, there was one attempt in Seaman John C.
It was discovered they were German saboteurs, landed by submarine with a mission to sabotage New York port facilities.
The five were convicted and sentenced to death. In July , the fatal shooting of a man on a remote U. Navy arctic drifting ice station on the high seas required action by CGI.
At the request of Navy officials, CGI special agent Frank Love was flown to the ice station, where he placed the suspect under arrest and escorted him back to the United States. In , the criminal and intelligence functions of CGI were split from one another and two distinct programs were the result, Coast Guard Intelligence and Coast Guard Investigations. Both programs continued to expand in scope and responsibility.
In , a blue ribbon panel, consisting of representatives from the Coast Guard and other Federal law enforcement agencies was commissioned to chart the future course of Coast Guard Investigations. Skip to main content Press Enter. After the stunningly quick victory in June , France was knocked out of the war; part of it, with its capital in Vichy , became an informal ally of the Germans. A powerful Resistance movement sprang up, as the Germans fortified the coast against an Allied invasion and occupied the northern half of the country.
Chronology of Coast Guard History
The Vichy French government cooperated closely with the Germans, sending food, machinery and workers to Germany. Several hundred thousand Frenchmen and women were forced to work in German factories, or volunteered to do so, as the French economy itself deteriorated. Nevertheless, there was a strong Resistance movement, with fierce anti-resistance activities carried out by the Nazis and the French police. Most Jews were rounded up by the Vichy police and handed over to the Germans, who sent them to death camps.
The two million French soldiers held as POWs and forced laborers in Germany throughout the war were not at risk of death in combat, but the anxieties of separation for their , wives were high. The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families.
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Women suffered shortages of all varieties of consumer goods and the absence of the men in POW camps. Supply problems quickly affected French stores, which lacked most items. The government responded by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting young people in urban areas. In shops, the queues lengthened.
Some people—including German soldiers who could take advantage of arbitrary exchange rates that favored Germany—benefited from the black market , where food was sold without coupons at very high prices.
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Farmers diverted meat to the black market, so there was much less for the open market. Counterfeit food coupons were also in circulation. Direct buying from farmers in the countryside and barter against cigarettes became common. These activities were strictly forbidden, and carried the risk of confiscation and fines. Food shortages were most acute in the large cities.
Vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition were prevalent. Advice about eating a healthier diet and home growing produce was distributed. Slogans like "Digging for Victory" and "Make Do and Mend" appeared on national posters and became a part of the war effort. The city environment made these efforts nearly negligible.
The official ration provided starvation-level diets of 1, or fewer calories a day kJ , supplemented by home gardens and, especially, black market purchases. The Dutch famine of , known as the Hongerwinter "Hunger winter" was a man-made famine imposed by Germany in the occupied western provinces during the winter of — A German blockade cut off food and fuel shipments from farm areas. A total of 4. The Nazi Hunger Plan was to kill the Jews of Poland quickly, and slowly to force the Poles to leave by threat of starvation, so that they could be replaced by German settlers.
The Nazis coerced Poles to work in Germany by providing favorable food rations for families who had members working in the Reich. The ethnic German population in Poland Volksdeutsche were given good rations and were allowed to shop for food in special stores. The German occupiers created a draconian system of food controls, including severe penalties for the omnipresent black market. There was a sharp increase in mortality due to the general malnutrition, and a decline in birth rates. By mid , the German minority in Poland received 2, calories 11, kJ per day, while Poles received and Jews in the ghetto Only the ration allocated to Germans provided the full required calorie intake.
Distribution of food in Nazi occupied Poland as of December . Additionally the Generalplan Ost of the Nazis, which envisioned the elimination of the Slavic population in the occupied territories and artificial famines-as proposed in the Hunger Plan , were to be used.
On September 1, , Germany invaded Poland, conquering it in three weeks, as the Soviets invaded the eastern areas. During the German occupation, there were two distinct civilian uprisings in Warsaw, one in , the other in The Germans built high walls around the ghetto, and crowded , Polish Jews into it, many from the Polish provinces.
At first, people were allowed to enter and leave the ghetto, but soon its border became an "iron curtain". Unless on official business, Jews could not leave, and non-Jews, including Germans, could not enter. Entry points were guarded by German soldiers. Because of extreme conditions and hunger, mortality in the ghetto was high. In , the Germans moved , ghetto residents to Treblinka where they were gassed on arrival. By April 19, , when the Ghetto Uprising commenced, the population of the ghetto had dwindled to 60, individuals.
In the following three weeks, virtually all died as the Germans fought and systematically destroyed the buildings in the ghetto. The uprising by Poles began on August 1, , when the Polish underground, the "Home Army", aware that the Soviet Army had reached the eastern bank of the Vistula, sought to liberate Warsaw much as the French resistance had liberated Paris a few weeks earlier. Joseph Stalin had his own group of Communist leaders for the new Poland and did not want the Home Army or its leaders based in London to control Warsaw. So he halted the Soviet offensive and gave the Germans free rein to suppress it.
During the ensuing 63 days, , Poles of the Home Army surrendered to the Germans. After the Germans forced all the surviving population to leave the city, Hitler ordered that any buildings left standing be dynamited — 98 percent of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed. During the invasion of the Soviet Union in the early months of the war, rapid German advances almost captured the cities of Moscow and Leningrad.
The bulk of Soviet industry which could not be evacuated was either destroyed or lost due to German occupation. Agricultural production was interrupted, with grain crops left standing in the fields. This caused hunger reminiscent of the early s. In one of the greatest feats of war logistics, factories were evacuated on an enormous scale, with 1, factories dismantled and shipped eastwards along four principal routes to the Caucasus , Central Asia , the Ural , and Siberia. The whole of the Soviet Union become dedicated to the war effort.
The people of the Soviet Union were probably better prepared than any other nation involved in World War II to endure the material hardships of the war — primarily because they were so used to shortages and economic crisis in the past, especially during wartime—World War I had brought similar restrictions on food.
In Leningrad, under German siege, over a million people died of starvation and disease. Many factory workers were teenagers, women and old people. The government implemented rationing in and first applied it to bread, flour, cereal, pasta, butter, margarine, vegetable oil, meat, fish, sugar and confectionery all across the country. The rations remained largely stable in other places [ clarification needed ] during the war. Off-ration food was often so expensive that it could not add substantially to a citizen's food supply unless they were especially well-paid.
Peasants received no rations and had to make do with any local resources they farmed themselves.