RA often affects joints in the fingers, wrists, knees and elbows, is symmetrical appears on both sides of the body , and can lead to severe deformity in a few years if not treated. RA occurs mostly in people aged 20 and above. In children, the disorder can present with a skin rash , fever , pain , disability, and limitations in daily activities. Bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone continuously undergoes remodeling by actions of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts.
One of the main triggers of bone erosion in the joints in rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of the synovium , caused in part by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand RANKL , a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts. Lupus is a common collagen vascular disorder that can be present with severe arthritis.
Other features of lupus include a skin rash, extreme photosensitivity , hair loss , kidney problems, lung fibrosis and constant joint pain. Gout is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known as pseudogout.
In the early stages, the gouty arthritis usually occurs in one joint, but with time, it can occur in many joints and be quite crippling. The joints in gout can often become swollen and lose function. Gouty arthritis can become particularly painful and potentially debilitating when gout cannot successfully be treated. Infectious arthritis is another severe form of arthritis. It presents with sudden onset of chills, fever and joint pain. The condition is caused by bacteria elsewhere in the body. Infectious arthritis must be rapidly diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent irreversible joint damage.
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Psoriasis can develop into psoriatic arthritis. With psoriatic arthritis, most individuals develop the skin problem first and then the arthritis.
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The typical features are of continuous joint pains, stiffness and swelling. The disease does recur with periods of remission but there is no cure for the disorder.
A small percentage develop a severe painful and destructive form of arthritis which destroys the small joints in the hands and can lead to permanent disability and loss of hand function. There is no known cure for either rheumatoid or osteoarthritis.
Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical therapy , lifestyle changes including exercise and weight control , orthopedic bracing , and medications. Joint replacement surgery may be required in eroding forms of arthritis. Medications can help reduce inflammation in the joint which decreases pain.
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Moreover, by decreasing inflammation, the joint damage may be slowed. In general, studies have shown that physical exercise of the affected joint can noticeably improve long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercise of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person. Individuals with arthritis can benefit from both physical and occupational therapy.
In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement can be limited. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay need for surgical intervention in advanced cases. Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance and flexibility. In some cases, exercises may be designed to train balance. Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities. Assistive technology is a tool used to aid a person's disability by reducing their physical barriers by improving the use of their damaged body part, typically after an amputation.
Assistive technology devices can be customized to the patient or bought commercially. There are several types of medications that are used for the treatment of arthritis. Treatment typically begins with medications that have the fewest side effects with further medications being added if insufficiently effective. Depending on the type of arthritis, the medications that are given may be different. For example, the first-line treatment for osteoarthritis is acetaminophen paracetamol while for inflammatory arthritis it involves non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs like ibuprofen.
For more severe cases of osteoarthritis, intra-articular corticosteroid injections may also be considered. The drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis RA range from corticosteroids to monoclonal antibodies given intravenously. Due to the autoimmune nature of RA, treatments may include not only pain medications and anti-inflammatory drugs, but also another category of drugs called disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs DMARDs. A number of rheumasurgical interventions have been incorporated in the treatment of arthritis since the s. Arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee provides no additional benefit to optimized physical and medical therapy.
People with hand arthritis can have trouble with simple activities of daily living tasks ADLs , such as turning a key in a lock or opening jars, as these activities can be cumbersome and painful. There are adaptive aids or assistive devices ADs available to help with these tasks,  but they are generally more costly than conventional products with the same function. It is now possible to 3-D print adaptive aids, which have been released as open source hardware to reduce patient costs.
Further research is required to determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS for knee osteoarthritis is effective for controlling pain. Low level laser therapy may be considered for relief of pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy has tentative evidence supporting improved functioning but no evidence of improved pain in osteoarthritis. Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease. With an aging population, this number is expected to increase.
Adults with co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, were seen to have a higher than average prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis Of these, osteoarthritis is the fastest increasing major health condition. A systematic review assessed the prevalence of arthritis in Africa and included twenty population-based and seven hospital-based studies. Nine studies were well-conducted, eleven studies were of moderate quality, and seven studies were conducted poorly. The results of the systematic review were as follows:.
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Evidence of osteoarthritis and potentially inflammatory arthritis has been discovered in dinosaurs. In early reports, arthritis was frequently referred to as the most common ailment of prehistoric peoples. In , William Musgrave published the second edition of his most important medical work, De arthritide symptomatica , which concerned arthritis and its effects. The word 'arthritides' denotes the collective group of arthritis-like conditions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Arteritis.
For the journal, see Arthritis journal. A type of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Arthritis - Wikipedia
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Osteoarthritis. Main article: Rheumatoid arthritis. Main article: Lupus erythematosus.
Main article: Gout. Retrieved 14 December October Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 14 September June 22, Archived from the original on 14 September Hari Articular Cartilage. CRC Press.