Surfactant - Wikipedia
Membrane Surfactants and Lipids 5. Microemulsions 5. Surfactants, Co-surfactants, and Microemulsion Formation 5. Ionic Surfactant Systems 5. Nonionic Surfactant Systems 5. Solubilization In Surfactants Micelles 6. The "Geography" of Solubilization in Micelles 6.
Surfactant Structure and the Solubilization Process 6. Solubilization and the Nature of the Additive 6. The Effect of Temperature on Solubilization Phenomena 6. The Effects of Non-electrolyte Solutes 6. The Effects of Added Electrolyte 6. Miscellaneous Factors Affecting Solubilization 6. Micellar Catalysis 6. Micellar Catalysis in Aqueous Solution 6. Micellar Catalysis in Nonaqueous Solvents 6.
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Phase Transfer Catalysis 6. Cross-phase Reactions 6. Alkylnitrile Synthesis 6. Dihalocyclopropanes 6. Polymeric Surfactants and Amphiphiles 7. Synthetic Polymeric Surfactants 7. The Interactions of "Normal" Surfactants with Polymers 7. Surfactant-Polymer Complex Formation 7. Nonionic Polymers 7. Ionic Polymers and Proteins 7. Polymers, Surfactants, and Solubilization 7. The Physical Basis for Foam Formation 8.
The Role of Surfactant in Foams 8. Foam Formation and Surfactant Structure 8. Amphiphilic Mesophases and Foam Stability 8. Foam Inhibition 8. Chemical Structures of Antifoaming Agents 8. The Spreading Coefficient 8. Liquid Aerosols 8.
The Formation of Liquid Aerosols 8. Nozzle Atomization 8. Rotary Atomization 8. Aerosol Formation by Condensation 8. Colloidal Properties of Aerosols 8. The Dynamics of Aerosol Movement 8. General Considerations of Emulsion Stability 9. The Lifetimes of Typical Emulsions 9. Theories of Emulsion Stability 9. Emulsion Type and the Nature of the Surfactant 9.
Surface Activity and Emulsion Stability 9. Mixed Surfactant Systems and Interfacial Complexes 9. Amphiphile Mesophases and Emulsion Stability 9. Surfactant Structure and Emulsion Stability 9. Multiple Emulsions 9.
Nomenclature for Multiple Emulsions 9. Preparation and Stability of Multiple Emulsions 9.
Pathways for Primary Emulsion Breakdown 9. The Nature of Solid Surfaces Liquid versus Solid Surfaces Adsorption Isotherms Mechanisms of Surfactant Adsorption Dispersion Forces Polarization and Dipolar Interactions Electrostatic Interactions The Electrical Double Layer The pseudophase micellar model is, therefore, opted over the mass action model.
Furthermore, the poly oxyethylene moiety in [C 8 H 17 -O CH- 2 CH 2 O 30 -H] chain can be protonated at low pH, leads to increase in entropy of micellization, making it positively charged to behave as a pseudo ionic surfactant. At alkaline pH, decreasing entropy of micellization due to deprotonation, making it to remain nonionic. The enthalpies and entropies of micellization process, as presented in Table 2,were plotted against each other and an excellent linear compensation effect was observed as suggested by Lumry and rajender Lumry et al.
The slop of the line is the compensation temperature has been found to be K, close to the expected values between and K in aqueous medium Lumry et al. The existence of such enthalpy-entropy compensation effect was also observed earlier for many physicochemical processes including monolayer and micellization Sharma and Rakshit, ; Lumry, and Rajendra, ; Lumry and Rajendra, ; Singh and Singh, and Leffler et al.
Assuming the adsorption density of water to be zero, the Gibbs adsorption equation Defay et al. Since the surfactant solutions are dilute, the activity is easily replaced by concentration. It is seen from Table 3, the surface excess increases with increase in temperature due to dehydration of the surfactant molecule.
This is ascribed to compact adsorption at the air-water interface, two forces are operating; the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chain and the cross sectional area of the poly oxyethylene unit as the surfactant anchors at the interface through hydrogen bonding between poly oxyethylene unit and the water molecule as shown in Fig. This is also supported from the fluorescence behavior of pyrene in the presence of polyoxyethylated alkyl phenol Sahoo et al. The nature of interaction is complicated.
Adsorption of Nonionic Surfactants on Cellulose Surfaces: Adsorbed
The magnitudes of A min are of the order of 1. In Table 4, the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption viz. T plot. The endothermic character of micellization and adsorption are specific to the surfactant, the additive and the temperature Sulthana et al. The compensation temperature has been found to be K, some what different from K obtained for micellization phenomenon, but within the expected range for aqueous systems K Lumry and Rajendra, Patel, for assisting experimental work and preparing manuscript of this paper and Dr.
Patel, Head, Department of Chemistry, S. Nagar, for providing facility to do this work. Coll Interface Sci. Attwood, D. Behrends, T. Coll Surf, Clint, J. Surfactant Aggregation Blakie, London , Dave, P. Res J Chem Environ. Del Rio, J. Defay, R. Surface Tension and Adsorption.
Longmans, London. Fu, E.